Get a phunnel bowl! or vortex! and to answer you question yes super glue could work but I wouldn't trust that solution when the bowl gets too hot and you're inhaling from it. It depends on where the break is. I would just buy a new bowl. My two recommendations are a small phunnel bowl or a mini vortex. Vortex costs less and is pretty good but my favorite is still phunnel. Good luck.
The biggest hookah bowl disaster would be if you were putting the bowl on, you knocked the hookah off the counter, breaking the base, and the stem and hose for some reason caught on fire so.... you just need a new bowl or just glue it together hehe.